The Second Chamber held a debate on nanotechnology on 11 June 2009. This is a significant point in time, for while the Netherlands prepares for a new investment programme, the European Parliament is seeking to set clear boundaries on the use of nanomaterials and the introduction of nanotech products on the market. Why is nanotechnology so important? And what needs to be done to avoid potential risks? In the run-up to the political discussion, the Rathenau Institute wrote the background memorandum, Nano in the Netherlands. In this summary, we set out the most significant political points of focus.