Good research is not only a matter of finding talented researchers. The environment in which they work is also important. Ensuring that researchers are properly embedded in the organisation is the job of management, at both research group and institution level. Precisely how can research group leaders organise their groups, and lead them to perform better? To date, only fragmented, incomplete studies had addressed this issue. The Rathenau Institute’s Science System Assessment department has therefore performed a study in the field of medical research to fill the gap.