- Companies fund a little over half of the R&D performed in the Netherlands, followed by the higher educations sector, and research institutes.
- The majority of this for all sectors together is applied research, within companies almost half of the research is experimental development.
- The costs of R&D consist for 70% of personnel costs, 24% other running costs, 4% land and building and 3% equipment.
R&D expenditure in the Netherlands by performing sector and source of funds
|Abroad||Private non profit||Higher Education||Government||Business enterprises|
In 2019, total R&D expenditure in the Netherlands (GERD) amounted to 17.8 billion euros. Of this, 67% was performed in the business sector (BERD: 11.8 billion euros), 28% in the higher education sector (HERD: 4.9 billion euros) and 6% in the research institutes (GOVERD: 1 billion euros).
Companies fund a little over half of the R&D performed in the Netherlands, while one third is funded by the government, 10% comes from abroad and 2% is funded by private non-profit organizations. While business enterprises are the main funder of the R&D carried out in the private sector, government is the main funder of R&D in the higher education sector and the research institutes sector.
R&D expenditure in the Netherlands by performing sector and type of activity
|Experimental development||Applied research||Basic research|
Looking at the types of R&D activity, we see that when all sectors are taken together applied research account for 42%. Within the sectors, the shares of the different types vary: almost half of the R&D performed by companies concerns experimental development, 42% is applied research and 11% is fundamental research; research institutions mainly perform applied research (44%) and fundamental research (40%) and a some applied research (16%); and the emphasis in higher education is on fundamental research (58%) and applied research (42%).
R&D expenditure in the Netherlands by performing sector and type of costs
|Instruments and equipment||Land and buildings||Other current costs||Labour costs|
70% of R&D expenditure consists of personnel costs, 24% are other current (material) costs, 4% goes to land and buildings and 3% is spent on instruments and equipment. Within the research institutes, the distribution is about the same. Higher education has a smaller proportion of personnel costs, but larger shares of material costs and costs of land and buildings. In business enterprises, the share of labour costs is higher, while the shares for other current costs as well as costs for land and buildings are lower.